|Description||Calorie restiction (CR) slows aging and extends mean and maximum life-span in a wide variety of organisms, including mice and rats (Weindruch and Walford, 1988). It is unclear whether CR will extend life-span in humans. However, humans subjected to CR show many of the same physiological changes as long-lived CR rodents, including lower blood glucose and insulin, higher serum DHEAS, decreased body temperature, decreased serum IGF-1, decreased blood pressure, and increased blood cortisol (Walford, 2002). Three of these markers, decreased body temperature, decreased insulin, and increased DHEAS have been definitively linked to longevity in humans (Roth et al., 2002).|
|Other Phenotypes||A study on rhesus monkeys was begun at the National Institute on Aging in 1987 to study the effects of 30% CR. Rhesus monkeys on caloric restriction have lower body temperature, fasting blood glucose and insulin, and serum triglycerides and cholesterol (Lane et al, 1999). They are more sensitive to insulin than ad lib fed controls and have increased HDL2B (Lane et al, 1999). They have reduced body fat and lower blood pressure (Lane et al, 1999).|
Preliminary data from this study suggests that monkeys subjected to CR show increased survival and reduced mortality compared to controls (Roth et al. 2002, Bodkin et al., 2003).
|Primary Reference||Walford, R. L., Mock, D., Verdery, R., and MacCallum, T. (2002). Calorie restriction in biosphere 2: alterations in physiologic, hematologic, hormonal, and biochemical parameters in humans restricted for a 2-year period. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 57, [Abstract]|
|Other References||Weindruch, R. H., and Walford, R. L. (1988). The Retardation of Aging and Disease by Dietary Restriction. (Springfield, IL.: Thomas).|
Roth, G. S., Lane, M. A., Ingram, D. K., Mattison, J. A., Elahi, D., Tobin, J. D., Muller, D., and Metter, E. J. (2002). Biomarkers of caloric restriction may predict longevity in humans. Science 297, 811. [Abstract]
Lane MA, Ingram DK, Roth GS. (1999) Calorie restriction in nonhuman primates: effects on diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. Toxicol Sci. 52(2 Suppl):41-8. [Abstract]
Bodkin, N. L., Alexander, T. M., Ortmeyer, H. K., Johnson, E., and Hansen, B. C. (2003). Mortality and morbidity in laboratory-maintained rhesus monkeys and effects of long-term dietary restriction. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 58, A212-219.
|Relevant Links||CR Society: http://www.calorierestriction.org|
|Keywords||primate, caloric restriction, metabolism, sugar, dietary restriction, calorie restriction, food restriction, nutrition|